Rūfus et arma ātra: Teacher’s Materials, and Student FVR Readers

3000 additional total words in 28 scenes and stories for the novice reader featuring more vivid descriptions of weapons, deeper character development, mud, fights with animals, retiarii, baths, rumors, mysterious odors, infants in danger, Crixaflamma’s real name, and more…

This is a different kind of teacher’s guide.

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Communication: Definition & Clarification

Recently on Twitter, Tea with BVP caller extraordinaire, Longinus, as well as some Inclusive Latin Classroom folks, got me thinking about the definition of communication. What follows are terms I’ve been using for a while (almost entirely unoriginal), clarified by Bill VanPatten on Episode 68 of Tea with BVP.

Communication isn’t only speaking:
Communication is the interpretation, negotiation, and expression of meaning. We interpret when we read, and express when we write; no speaking necessary.

Two people are usually involved, but not required:
If I write a note (expression), and place it in a drawer, but then the apt. catches fire (yes, we have renters insurance), there’s no possible way for anyone to read it (interpretation), or ask me about it (negotiation), even if that was my intent. I most certainly expressed my ideas, there just wasn’t anyone around to interpret them.

In Latin, reading—though not to be confused with translating—is the primary form of communication. ACTFL modes of communication are helpful, here. Reading is one-way, and Interpretive (i.e. interpretation), but someone had to write what we read…at some point (i.e. two people involved). That person who wrote what we read is also one-way, and Presentational (i.e. expression). Neither of these become Interpersonal (i.e. negotiation) unless there is interaction between two people, and this interaction doesn’t have to take place in person. This is why Bill VanPatten refers to communication as “expression, interpretation, and sometimes negotiation of meaning.” Both the writer and reader engage in acts of communication, it’s just that their role is different.

Timing (i.e. real, or asynchronous) & Perspective:
Ovid wrote something (expression) a couple thousand years ago that I can try to read today (interpretation). There has been no interaction between us, eliminating the possibility of negotiation. However, if I write an adaptation of Ovid (expression), and then send it to John Bracey, a couple things could happen. John could star the email, forget, and never end up reading it (no interpretation, just my expression). Or, John could read it (interpretation), and send back some notes or questions (negotiation). This interaction between us would be delayed, but still the same process communication-wise as if we were in person. Now, if I also star and forget about that latest correspondence from John, however, neither negotiation nor interpretation occur. This doesn’t change the fact that John expressed ideas and attempted to negotiate with me. That is to say, from John’s perspective, he still engaged in communication, but it was only one-way without my involvement.

Communication as a concept, not as verb “communicate:”
Although I’m engaging in the act of communication by trying to read Ovid (interpretation), one could hardly say that I’m “communicating with” Ovid anymore than Ovid is “communicating with” me, or us as a society. Ovid certainly expressed meaning, itself communication by definition, but in the absence of real time interaction and negotiation, or even delayed negotiation of meaning over letters, we are not “communicating with” each other.

Someone correctly brought up the fact that the idea of “communicating with the ancient world” isn’t possible. Classicists use this phrase, referring to relating to [certain] ancient people’s ideas (expression) by learning more (interpreting) about the past, and making connections to our own lives, but this ends there as far as communication goes. There is no possibility of interaction (negotiating) with ancient authors. When we read about the past, communication is one-way.

Partially- or fully-communicative:
Things get more complicated from here, but the definition of communication still holds up. An activity lacking a purpose yet focusing on meaning is partially-communicative. Most teachers spend their time doing partially-communicative activities in preparation of a few fully-communicative tasks along the way. Personally, I don’t bother with tasks/Tasks, and find them awfully close to performance-based assessments, the juice of which tends not to be worth the squeeze.

Writing for the Novice: Fewer Words, Shorter Sentences

When it comes to writing for the novice, nothing is more important than using words students know, and keeping sentences short. The use of fewer words is self-evident. Shorter sentences, however, help reduce cognitive demand, and likely result in more repeated words from restating the subject, and clearly separating contrasting ideas instead of piles of subordination.

Magister Craft’s latest October Equus is the most understandable novice-categorized Latin video out there that doesn’t establishing meaning in the video itself (though complete subtitles in English are available). There are 127 total words, and 86 unique. If we exclude names, and a handful of words with different forms, that brings it down to about 60 words. The most frequently repeated words are est (6), in (6), et (5), caput (4), and equus (4), with another 5 words repeated 2x. Even this most-likely-to-be-understood video is nowhere near comprehensible to my first year students, or any other students who aren’t familiar with about 58 of those particular words.

How to make this more comprehensible for my students? The first step, without reducing the word count, is breaking up sentences (the longest sentences are 10 words in length). This allows us to restate the subject, or verbs with multiple subjects, and then add one or two words from the original longer sentence. As a result, the novice student has more exposure to the big content words that hold meaning, and increases the chance that any new words are comprehended instead of part of a string of new words all at once. Here are examples:

  • Aeneas, conditor Romae, Troianus fuit.
    • Aeneas Troianus fuit. Aeneas conditor Romae fuit.
  • Sacerdos equum hasta interficit.
    • Sacerdos equum interficit. Sacerdos equum hasta interficit. 
  • Sacerdos caudam et caput equi capit.
    • Sacerdos caudam equi capit. Sacerdos caput equi quoque capit. 
  • Suburaneses in Subura  et Sacravienses in Sacra Via habitant.
    • Suburaneses in Subura habitant. Sacravienses in Sacra Via habitant.
  • Suburaneses et Sacravienses inter se pugnant quia volunt caput equi.
    • Suburaneses et Sacravienses inter se pugnant. Suburaneses et Sacravienses inter se pugnant quia volunt caput equi.
  • Si vincunt Suburaneses, caput ad turrim Mamiliam portant.
    • Si vincunt Suburaneses, Suburaneses caput ad turrim Mamiliam portant.
  • Si vincunt Sacravienses, caput ad Regiam portant.
    • Si vincunt Sacravienses, Sacravienses caput ad Regiam portant.
  • Cauda equi ad templum Vestae portatur.
    • Cauda equi ad templum portatur. est templum Vestae.
  • Tum sanguis ex cauda in ignes cadit.
    • Tum sanguis in ignes cadit. sanguis est ex cauda equi. 
  • sacrificium faciunt.
    • Sacerdotes sacrificium faciunt.

There is no trick to reducing word count. The best we can do (without rewriting) would be to recycle existing words by creating new, shorter sentences that include some of the least frequent words. This technique is used in Recycled Readings (RR) as a way to personalize and increase exposure to seldom-repeated words in textbooks, although we don’t have to insert details about our students just to make October Equus more comprehensible. Breaking up longer sentences and restating the subject, shown above, takes care of recycling some words. Otherwise, we would add more information with the following words:

  • celebratur
  • ceperunt
  • conditor
  • fortasse
  • in memoria
  • belli
  • incipit
  • bigae
  • currunt
  • via
  • turrim
  • sacrificium faciunt

Some of the words above can easily be added to the original text (e.g. “Suburaneses per Suburam currunt. Sacravienses per Sacram Viam currunt,” and “multi festi celebrantur Romae,” etc.), while others would require a little more creativity to recycle (e.g. conditor? turrim?). The result of all this is a more comprehensible text for the novice, which also has the benefit of being longer in total length. All of the simple changes mentioned above would add 41% more total words (53), with per and multi added to the unique count. Once we take care of recycling some of the other words, at least once, the total word count would likely double from the original. There is certainly a risk to overdoing the recycled vocabulary, which Rūfus lutulentus pushes the limit of, with only 20 words of 1200 total length! However, the novice—the true novice—doesn’t feel that repetition the way we do, or even the way most students do. If your students do, however, they’re probably moving out of the novice level! This is a good thing seeing as there’s less of a need for intermediate+ reading material.

If you’re not convinced that shorter sentences are easier sentences and more appropriate for the novice, check out this demonstration (Gellius, Noctēs Atticae XVII 21.3):

Incipiemus igitur a Solone claro, quoniam de Homero et Hesiodo inter omnes fere scriptores constitit aetatem eos egisse vel isdem fere temporibus vel Homerum aliquanto antiquiorem, utrumque tamen ante Romam conditam vixisse Silviis Albae regnantibus annis post bellum Troianum, ut Cassius in primo annalium de Homero atque Hesiodo scriptum reliquit, plus centum atque  sexaginta, ante Romam autem conditam, ut Cornelius Nepos in primo chronicorum de Homero dixit, annis circiter centum et sexaginta.

That’s a 72 word paragraph—wait, sentence—with 54 unique words. 18 of them repeat (dē Homerō (3); the other 16 (2)). Of the words that repeat, very few of them are big content words holding a lot of meaning. In fact, this entire idea could be reduced to the first 4 words, and we can even leave out igitur (i.e. incipiemus a Solone). I probably have an intermediate proficiency level in Latin. To put this into perspective, I couldn’t read the paragraph—sentence—above once through with enough meaning to understand the gist. It took me rereading 3x to get the main idea, and that’s after studying Latin for about 12 years, but only actually reading it for about 4. Had I been given more Latin with fewer words and shorter sentences, there’s a good chance I could read that sentence once through without hesitation, today.

K-F-D Quiz: Fun With Data Analysis!

I spent about 15min entering data from the diēs Mārtis (i.e. Tuesday) Latin class K-F-D QuizzesN.B. These are “sneaky quizzes” per my NTPRS 2017 presentation, No Prep Grading & Assessment, referring to “assessments” that satisfy most quizzing/testing requirements, yet are actually an opportunity to interact and acquire.


28 students were in class for the K-F-D Quiz. Here are some observations:

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Making Latin More Comprehensible: Cognates

Teacher’s Materials for Rūfus et arma ātra are just days away from being published, featuring 28 additional stories that expand the unique word count, and increase sentence lengths. This will provide the novice+ student with 3000 more total words to read in Latin, and is the first of my Latin texts written with deliberate attention to super clear cognates—45 of them!

When it comes to a student-centered acquisition-rich classroom, the main responsibility of a teacher is providing input. Given time constraints, as well as what we know about general anxiety over learning languages, the input (I) should be as comprehensible (C) as possible. Therefore, the teacher would benefit from spending most of their time making the target language more comprehensible, but doing so requires training in particular strategies and techniques.

An oft neglect technique for Latin teachers is the liberal use of cognates.

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Preparing Our Students For…Latin 100?!

Someone on Facebook posed a couple questions to those at the college/university level regarding the preparedness, and subsequent placement of incoming students.

These are excellent questions.

One comment reported that most incoming Advanced Placement (AP) students retake a lower level grammar course in college. Most! These AP students were successful in high school because of significant memorization, but aren’t prepared for grammar the way colleges expect them to be. Perhaps we should look at exposing students to grammar a different way, no?

I’ve asked these questions, myself, yet the few Classics Departments I solicited years ago didn’t collect any of that data beyond a handful of students they could remember from the current year. Oh, would that they had done so!

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Kahoot English Quadrant Word Race

The low-tech/no-tech paper version of the English Quadrant Word Race (included in Pīsō Ille Poētulus Teacher’s Guide, as well as the upcoming Teacher’s Materials for Rūfus et arma ātra) is an awesome, simple, input-based competitive activity.

The more-tech version is to take 5min and make a Kahoot quiz for the whole class, or teams. On Kahoot, students earn more points the faster they answer, so you’ll get a whole class/team winner (vs. the 1 winner per pair in the low/no-tech paper version).

kahoot 1

The process is the same—just read slowly in the target language, and when students hear you say one of the options, they choose it on their smartphone/computer.

kahoot 2